The discussion in a previous paper (Oldroyd 1950), on the invariance properties required of the equations of state of a homogeneous continuum, is extended by taking into account thermodynamic restrictions on the form of the equations, in the case of an elastic solid deformed from an unstressed equilibrium configuration. The general form of the finite strainstress-temperature relations, expressed in terms of a free-energy function, is deduced without assuming that the material is isotropic. The results of other authors based on the assumption of isotropy are shown to follow as particular cases. The equations of state are derived by considering quasi-static changes in an elastic solid continuum; the results then apply to non-ideally elastic solids in equilibrium, or subjected to quasi-static changes only, and to ideally elastic solids in general motion. A necessary and sufficient compatibility condition for the finite strains at different points of a continuum is also derived. As a simple illustration of the derivation and use of equations of state involving anisotropic physical constants, the torsion of an anisotropic cylinder is discussed briefly.