Royal Society Publishing

Singularities of Electron Kernel Functions in an External Electromagnetic Field

J. G. Valatin

Abstract

The electron kernel functions are derived from solutions of the second-order wave equation, using the proper-time parametrization. Iterated kernel functions are introduced and a gauge-independent perturbation theory is developed. The separation of singular parts proceeds in terms of the iterated kernel functions valid in the absence of an electromagnetic field, and the singular expressions which have to be compensated in order to determine the physically significant part of the vacuum polarization are obtained in a more transparent form than those given originally by Heisenberg.

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