The methods by which neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering may be used to study the structure and dynamics of solutions are reviewed, with particular reference to solutions of amphiphile and biological molecules in water. Neutron methods have particular power because the scattering lengths for protons and deuterons are of opposite sign, and hence there exists the possibility of obtaining variable contrast between the scattering of the aqueous medium and the molecules in it. In addition, the contrast variation method is also applicable to inelastic scattering studies whereby the dynamics of one component of the solution can be preferentially studied due to large and variable differences in the scattering cross sections. Both applications of contrast variation are illustrated with examples of amphiphile-water lamellar mesophases, diffraction from collagen, viruses, and polymer solutions. Inelastic scattering observations and the dynamics of water between the lamellar sheets allow microscopic measurements of the water diffusion along and perpendicular to the layers. The information obtained is complementary to that from nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance studies of diffusion.