Since the work of F. and H. London in 1935, the important question of explaining the relation between the static and uniform electric and magnetic responses of superconductors, namely, the zero–resistivity E = 0 and the perfect diamagnetism B = 0, seems to have long been forgotten. London & London postulated their famous macroscopic equation ΛcJ = −A, where Λ = m/nSe2. A logical gap [α], however, has been clearly admitted for a long time in the argument used to obtain B = 0 from dB/dt = 0. Here, we point out that there exists another hidden logical gap [β] in the argument used to obtain E = 0 from curl E = 0. Microscopically, the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) theory was constructed with the London equation in mind, and the concept of Josephson's phase locking in the macroscopic wave function ψmacro was established later. Quite recently (in 2001), we successfully clarified a substantial problem in superconductivity, unsolved and forgotten for a long time, in a stabilized form. Here, in particular, we must point out that, in order to remove logical gaps [α] and [β], we must simultaneously account for the zero–resistivity, ϕ(R) = 0 at ω = 0, and the perfect diamagnetism, [ℏK − (q/c)A(R)] = 0 at q = 0, equivalent to the second London equation, as a set of equally fundamental inherent properties of pure superconductivity at T ≃ 0 K. We further clarify why and how the BCS theory must be extended to the (1+3)–dimensional Minkowski space–time on the basis of the concept of coherence in the macroscopic wave function, Ψmacro, as an inevitable consequence of the gauge field theory.