Acoustic analogy methods are used as post-processing tools to predict aerodynamically generated sound from numerical solutions of unsteady flow. The Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) equation and related formulations, such as Farassat’s Formulations 1 and 1A, are among the commonly used analogies because of their relative low computation cost and their robustness. These formulations assume the propagation of sound waves in a medium at rest. The present paper describes a surface integral formulation based on the convective wave equation, which takes into account the presence of a mean flow. The formulation was derived to be easy to implement as a numerical post-processing tool for computational fluid dynamics codes. The new formulation constitutes one possible extension of Farassat’s Formulation 1 and 1A based on the convective form of the FW–H equation.
- Received March 30, 2010.
- Accepted May 26, 2010.
- This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society