In this paper, the role of gradient micro-inertia terms and free micro-inertia terms is investigated to unveil their respective effects on the dynamic behaviour of band-gap metamaterials. We show that the term alone is only able to disclose relatively simplified dispersive behaviour. On the other hand, the term alone describes the full complex behaviour of band-gap metamaterials. A suitable mixing of the two micro-inertia terms allows us to describe a new feature of the relaxed-micromorphic model, i.e. the description of a second band-gap occurring for higher frequencies. We also show that a split of the gradient micro-inertia , in the sense of Cartan–Lie decomposition of matrices, allows us to flatten separately the longitudinal and transverse optic branches, thus giving us the possibility of a second band-gap. Finally, we investigate the effect of the gradient inertia on more classical enriched models such as the Mindlin–Eringen and the internal variable ones. We find that the addition of such a gradient micro-inertia allows for the onset of one band-gap in the Mindlin–Eringen model and three band-gaps in the internal variable model. In this last case, however, non-local effects cannot be accounted for, which is a too drastic simplification for most metamaterials. We conclude that, even when adding gradient micro-inertia terms, the relaxed micromorphic model remains the best performing one, among the considered enriched models, for the description of non-local band-gap metamaterials.
- Received September 22, 2016.
- Accepted January 5, 2017.
- © 2017 The Author(s)
Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.