## Extract

In a communication published in the ‘Proceedings,’ Mr. Marconi has given the results observed when a straight horizontal conductor is substituted for the usual vertical conductor employed as a transmitter or receiver at a wireless telegraph station. The object of the following note is to consider the theory of such an arrangement, or at any rate one aspect of it. The receiver, as being the more important, will be considered first. Let AB (fig. 1) represent the horizontal receiver, consisting of a straight conductor having the end A connected to a spark-gap CC_{1} or other wave-detector. The electric oscillations in AB can be represented by a distribution of Hertzian oscillators along AB, and, if L denotes the current strength at any point of AB, it must satisfy the conditions L= 0 at B, the free end, and *d*L/*ds* = 0 at A, since the electric force perpendicular to AB at A must vanish. If the distance of AB from the earth is not too small, the effect of the oscillations belonging to the image in the earth of AB on those in AB may be neglected, the radiation from the free end B will be approximately symmetrical with respect to AB, and the oscillations in AB are then approximately the same as if BA formed part .of a semi-infinite straight conductor in which a system of oscillations is being maintained, B being the free end and A. the first node from the free end; the wave-length of these oscillations is very approximately five times the length of AB, and therefore the receiver is of maximum efficiency when its length is one-fifth of the length of the transmitted wave, a result observed by Marconi. When the distance of AB from the earth is so small that the effect of the oscillations in the image of AB in the earth on the oscillations in AB is not negligible, the radiation from the free end B will not be symmetrical with respect to AB, but may be taken as being approximately symmetrical with respect to some line through B making an angle with BA; the wave-length of the oscillations in AB is therefore equal to the wave-length of the oscillations in a bent conductor joining AB; that is greater than five times the length of AB, and, therefore, in this case the receiving conductor has its maximum efficiency when its Length is somewhat less than one-fifth of the length of the transmitted wave, result also observed by Marconi. To examine the effect of the orientation of the receiver, consider a straight conductor BAB' twice the length of AB (fig. 2) and its image B_{1}A_{1}B_{1}' in the horizontal plane, A and A_{1} being their middle points respectively.

## Footnotes

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- Received May 12, 1908.

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