TY - JOUR
T1 - On modifications of Newton's second law and linear continuum elastodynamics
JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science
JO - PROC R SOC A
SP - 855
LP - 880
M3 - 10.1098/rspa.2006.1795
VL - 463
IS - 2079
AU - Milton, Graeme W
AU - Willis, John R
Y1 - 2007/03/08
UR - http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/463/2079/855.abstract
N2 - In this paper, we suggest a new perspective, where Newton's second law of motion is replaced by a more general law which is a better approximation for describing the motion of seemingly rigid macroscopic bodies. We confirm a finding of Willis that the density of a body at a given frequency of oscillation can be anisotropic. The relation between the force and the acceleration is non-local (but causal) in time. Conversely, for every response function satisfying these properties, and having the appropriate high-frequency limit, there is a model which realizes that response function. In many circumstances, the differences between Newton's second law and the new law are small, but there are circumstances, such as in specially designed composite materials, where the difference is enormous. For bodies which are not seemingly rigid, the continuum equations of elastodynamics govern behaviour and also need to be modified. The modified versions of these equations presented here are a generalization of the equations proposed by Willis to describe elastodynamics in composite materials. It is argued that these new sets of equations may apply to all physical materials, not just composites. The Willis equations govern the behaviour of the average displacement field whereas one set of new equations governs the behaviour of the average-weighted displacement field, where the weighted displacement field may attach zero weight to ‘hidden’ areas in the material where the displacement may be unobservable or not defined. From knowledge of the average-weighted displacement field, one obtains an approximate formula for the ensemble averaged energy density. Two other sets of new equations govern the behaviour when the microstructure has microinertia, i.e. where there are internal spinning masses below the chosen scale of continuum modelling. In the first set, the average displacement field is assumed to be observable, while in the second set an average-weighted displacement field is assumed to be observable.
ER -