*ρ*_{i} | ice density | 917 kg m^{−3} |

Δ*ρ*_{Tw} | till–water density difference (2.5) | 10^{3} kg m^{−3} |

*ρ*_{w} | water density | 10^{3} kg m^{−3} |

*d*_{i} | ice depth | 10^{3} m |

Δ*ρ*_{wi} | equation (2.9) | 83 kg m^{−3} |

*g* | gravity | 9.8 m s^{−2} |

*k* | permeability | 10^{−15} m^{2} |

*η*_{w} | water viscosity | 1.8×10^{−3} Pa s |

*ϕ* | porosity | 0.4 |

*b* | squeeze coefficient (2.18) | 0.4×10^{−2} m^{2} Pa^{−1} yr^{−1} |

*c* | shearing coefficient (2.15) | <1 |

*μ* | coefficient of friction | 0.6 |

Δ*ρ*_{sw} | equation (2.17) | 1.6×10^{3} kg m^{−3} |

*D*_{s} | grain size | 10^{−4} m |

*K* | Meyer-Peter and Müller coefficient | 8 |

*Q*_{0} | meltwater flux | 10^{3} m^{2} yr^{−1} |

*τ**_{c} | critical Shields stress | 0.05 |

*ϕ*′ | derivative of *ϕ* | −10^{−7} Pa^{−1} |

*η*_{i} | ice viscosity | 2×10^{13} Pa s |

*τ*_{b} | basal shear stress (2.31) | 10^{4} Pa |

*S* | ice-surface slope | 10^{−3} |